Pakistan army had launched Operation Khyber 1 in Khyber tribal region on 16th October 2014 to eliminate the militants who had refused to come to terms after negotiations. They had established hideouts in Tirah and Bara areas of Khyber Agency after many groups of militants were flushed out of North Waziristan as a result of military Operation Zarb e Azb. The two most significant insurgent groups based in this area are Lashkar-e-Islam, headed by Mangal Bagh and Jamaat-ul-Ansar headed by Omer Khalid Khurasani.
The downside of the operation is more internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to Fata Disaster Management Authority (FDMA) 53,819 families comprising 364,960 people have so far moved out of Bara and Tirah valley.There are 213,195 children and 77,319 women among them.This week’s fighting concentrated around the remote Tirah valley, where TTP militants and their al Qaeda backers from across the mountainous area have been holed up since the start of the operation. The militants had established sanctuaries in Sepah and Akakhel and used to target security forces and local tribes people. In reply to concern that airstrikes could result in massive collateral damage, the army maintains that it conducts air strikes only in response to militant attacks and never targets civilian areas.
There are reports that in retaliation to Khyber 1, the Taliban carried out an attack on the Wagah border, after the flag-lowering ceremony, in which more than 60 people died including five rangers personnel. Pakistan armed forces reacted and killed 2 senior Taliban commanders in the Khyber region in an airstrike.