Vol. 6-Issue No 50
26th February, 2021
Pakistan strived hard to meet the requirements of the 27-point FATF plan to come out of the grey list. With constant efforts it managed to address twenty-four (24) points successfully. There was a high hope to get favourable response from FATF members this time. However, on 25th February, FATF announced that Pakistan would stay in the grey list till June 2021. It’s a damper on the enthusiasm of the people and government of Pakistan. They were upbeat over the perceived outcome of the meeting today. Adverse and unexpected decision has compelled many quarters to consider it arm-twisting at the behest of some powers.
The impression of arm-twisting, true or false, has a background. When President Donald Trump came into power he was advised to be tough with Pakistan to make it submit to their terms. The U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan Zalmey Khalilzad suggested targeting terrorists’ safe sanctuaries in Pakistan. Pakistan’s former ambassador to Washington, Hussain Haqqani, advocated the U.S. take a tougher position against Pakistan for a solution to problems inside Afghanistan. Alice Wells recommended tough stance against Pakistan. Gullible Trump took the bait. When the FATF was mostly satisfied on Pakistan’s progress to meet the requirements, US and UK wrote a letter to FATF to put Pakistan on the grey list. FATF complied with the ill-intentioned letter and Pakistan was brought on the grey list.
Pakistan’s growing proximity with China and its close partnership in Belt and Road Initiative in form of CPEC is an irritant for the US. Alice Wells had been very vocal about it. Besides, Afghan issue is another issue for the US for which it wants to coerce and dictate Pakistan. India is the facilitator providing exaggerated and jaundiced analysis on jihadi groups. Falling in line with the powers like the US, the warmth of brotherly relations of the Gulf states is also petering out. Despite all efforts, just for these reasons, Pakistan is being constantly subjected to unfair treatment, as is perceived by most of the Pakistanis.
Many argue, if FATF and APG have appreciated Pakistan’s high-level political commitment to work with them to strengthen its AML/CFT regime which has led to significant progress across a comprehensive CFT action plan, they should have given relief to Pakistan by pulling it out of the grey list, at least on conditional basis. It would have encouraged it to work harder to complete the rest of the three remaining items. But the hollow words of appreciation seem to be deception of the glorified clerks of FATAF/APG. Actual mantra is to do more.
The thee deficiencies it has pointed out are (i) demonstrating that TF investigations and prosecutions of target persons and entities acting on behalf or at the direction of the designated persons or entities, (ii) demonstrating that TF prosecutions result in effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions; and (iii)demonstrating effective implementation of targeted financial sanctions against all 1267 and 1373 designated terrorists, specifically those acting for or on their behalf. These points appear to be vague unless the details have been shared with Pakistan.
Pakistan, on its part, should be transparent and give the details pertaining to these three points to the parliament so that previous practice of clandestine activities sans the knowledge and approval of the civil government are revealed beyond a grain of doubt. More importantly a mechanism should be developed that such activities are not repeated. It all appears to be the fall-out of the activities of the proxies which operated openly and blatantly. No doubt, the powers that are lambasting us for the activities of the proxies were the main supporters of birth of proxies in Pakistan.
In any case, the government and people of Pakistan are keeping their fingers crossed till June 2021. There is a strong hope that Pakistan will meet the last three requirements within the deadline. And also hope that anti-CPEC approach, Afghan problem and India’s jaundiced information will not adversely influence FATF and APG to conveniently coerce Pakistan any further. To top all, Pakistan must take this opportunity to set its own house in order to avoid such a situation again.
TERRORISM/SECTARIANISM- AT A GLANCE
|1.||An IED, made in a plastic bottle, was found in the vicinity near under construction building Mithu Khan ahata along Railway road, Sadar Rawalpindi (24th February).||—||—||—|
Comments & Analysis: – Police investigations are under progress to arrest the culprits.
|1.||Counter-Terrorism Department (CTD) Police claims to have apprehended a terrorist identified as Asghar Khan affiliated with a banned organization and recovered weapons from his possession during a raid in Sukkur District. It is learnt that he got training from a neighbouring country and was involved in attacks on LEAs (18th February).||—||—||—|
|2.||A police constable Shiraz Khan was shot dead by unidentified armed motorcyclist at Khattak Chowk near Metro Ville, Karachi (18th February).||01||—||—|
Comments & Analysis: – The law-and-order situation from terrorism angle remained under control accept killing of a constable during the period under review.
|1.||Five soldiers, Naib Subedar Sajid Anwar, Naik Ahmed Khan, Lance Naik Shehryar, sepoy Shahzad, sepoy Ayub were killed and Sepoy Shahzad Afzal injured after an attack by the terrorists with light and heavy weapons on their checkpost at Sararogha area in South Waziristan tribal District (18th February).||04||01||—|
|2.||A health worker Sifat Ullah was shot at and seriously injured by unidentified gunmen in Khar bazar, Bajaur tribal District when he was on his way back to home after finishing his duty in the District HQ hospital. It is not known whether it was an act of terrorism or a result of personal enmity. Investigations are under progress (18th February).||—||01||—|
|3.||Two terrorists including one Rehmat @ Khalid were killed in a raid on their hid out by the security forces at Malik Khel, North Waziristan tribal District. Havaldar Shahzad Akbar also lost his life in the exchange of fire. Terrorist Rehmat was an IED expert and involved in several incidents of attacks on the security forces and ransom for kidnapping and killing of civilians since 2009 (20th February).||03||—||—|
|4.||Unknown militants killed four women aid workers and injured two others in Mir Ali, North Waziristan district near the Afghan border (21st February). The aid workers were affiliated with a local women’s skills development project NGO “Sabawon”. Only two days later one of the suspected assailants, named Hassan alias Sajana, was killed by the forces. He was associated with hafiz Gull Bahar group of TTP (23rd February).||05||02||—|
|5.||A tribal elder Malik Lal Said Jan was killed after IED attack by unidentified terrorists in Asbal Targhao area, Barang tehsil of Bajaur tribal District (22nd February).||01||—||—|
|6.||Main gate of the residence of a late tribal Malik Gulli Khan was destroyed in a bomb attack by unidentified persons in Pass killay area, Jamrud tehsil, Khyber tribal District (24th February).||—||—||—|
Comments & Analysis: – South and North Waziristan are again in the grip of the rising wave of terrorism. The trend shows that soft targets like NGO workers and health workers, especially women, are being attacked, in addition to attacks on the security forces, to create fear among the public and to demoralise the forces.
TTP and ilk were known for their evil designs to deprive the girls of their school and education. They burnt down schools and attacked girls. Nobel laureate Malala and her friends were targeted by TTP militants. These militants were subdued effectively but are raising their head again. They must be crushed.
|1.||One FC solider was reportedly killed and two others injured in a remote controlled IED explosion, planted by unidentified terrorists in a motorcycle, parked at the roadside in Western bypass area in Quetta. The FC vehicle was targeted which was passing the site of occurrence (18th February).||01||02||—|
|2.||Four FC soldiers were reportedly killed and another injured in an attack by unidentified terrorists on Zaman Khan check-post in Kahan area of Kohlu district (18th February).||04||01||—|
|3.||Two persons Gulam Murtaza and Sawan Khan were shot and injured by unidentified attackers in Gandhara area Jhal Maqsi District (22nd February)., under progress.||—||02||—|
Comments & Analysis: – In Balochistan, the terrorists, especially the Baloch separatists, are targeting the personnel of army, FC and police. At times they attack the minorities like Hazaras and people from other provinces, especially Punjab. Their moves are calculated and well-planned. A sustained and planned response is required from the intelligence agencies and LEAs.
Fencing with Iran and Afghanistan border to be completed by June
The fencing at Pakistan’s borders with Iran and Afghanistan completed by 40 and 90 percent was finished while the remaining would be completed on the part of border management to ensure national security by end of June, this year. It was stated by the Federal Interior Minister Sh Muhammad Rasheed accompanied by IG FC, South Balochistan Maj Gen. Humayun Bilal after an aerial visit of the areas near the Pak-Iran border including Gwadar, Turbat, Mand besides visiting Ramdhan-Gobd gate along the Iran border and other areas (18th February).
Comments & Analysis: – The Interior Minister, who is on a four-day visit to Balochistan to visit border areas including Taftan. It is pertinent to mention here that COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa announced in March 2017 that Pakistan had commenced fencing its border with Afghanistan. While a Senate briefing was told in May 2019 regarding the beginning of the fencing process at the Pakistan-Iran border.
Russian and Chinese Ambassadors visit GHQ
The Russian Presidential Envoy to Afghanistan Zamir Kabulov called on army Chief Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa at GHQ, Rawalpindi (Feb 18). The Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan Mr. Nong Rong called on Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Qamar Javed Bajwa at the General Headquarters (GHQ) in Rawalpindi (20th February).
US Centcom’s Chief visits GHQ
Commander US Central Command (Centcom), General Kenneth F McKenzie Jr, called on Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Qamar Javed Bajwa at the General Headquarters (GHQ). The visiting dignitary acknowledged Pakistan’s commendable efforts in the fight against terrorism and ensuring regional stability (19th February).
Comments & Analysis: – China is a close strategic ally of Pakistan in defence and economic field involving CPEC projects while Russia is coming close to Pakistan in the changing geo-strategic and political development in the region including that of peace process in Afghanistan. Besides visiting GHQ, the Russian envoy also met the Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi at Islamabad. The Russian envoy had earlier visited Afghanistan also where he stressed on the need of establishing a transitional government in Afghanistan to help move the peace process in Afghanistan through political settlement but it was disliked by the President Ashraf Ghani’s setup.
Pakistan Navy conducts joint drills with Russian, SriLankan forces
Pakistan Navy has conducted joint exercises Ex-Lion Star-11 PN with Russian and SriLankan navies after culmination of Aman-21 drill. It’s Ships ALAMGIR & Zulfiqar conducted bilateral Ex-Arabian Monsoon 2021 with Russian Federation Naval ship Admiral Grigorovich & Dmitriy Rogachov and Sri Lankan Navy Ship Gajabahu in the North Arabian Sea (20th February).
Comments & Analysis: – PAF and PN aviation fighters also participated in the bilateral drills, held in the exercise included anti-surface, anti-air warfare, maneuvering and communication serials to further enhance cooperation and interoperability with navies of Russian Federation & Sri Lanka, the spokesman added. Earlier 45 countries participated in the Aman-21 multinational naval exercise with their naval warships, aircraft, special operation forces and a large number of observers. Bilateral exercises with naval forces of different counties are an expression of Pakistan Navy’s commitment to promote peace, balance, and safe maritime environment in the region.
Pak-Turkey joint military exercises ended
Pakistan-Turkey joint military exercises Ataturk X1 2021 ended. The closing ceremony was attended by IG Evaluation LT Gen. Syed Adnan and Turkish Army’s Maj Gen Amer Tayanc at SSG HQ, Tarbela, KPK (20th February).
Comments & Analysis: – The three-week long exercise was participated by the special forces of Pakistan and Turkey, involving counter-terrorism techniques, close battle, fire and move, rescue and clearance along with the use of helicopters. The two countries are maintaining close cooperation in the defence field and the exercises have provided opportunity of sharing their experience with each other by the two forces.
ATC orders to block CNICs of Manzoor Pashteen, Mohsin Dawar
An anti-terrorism court (ATC) ordered to block National Computerized Identity Cards (CNICs) of the leaders of Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM), namely, Manzoor Pashteen and Mohsin Dawar, in a case related to provocative speech and treason. The court adjourned the proceedings till 9th March, 2021 (18th February).
Comments & Analysis: – Both Manzoor Pashteen and Mohsin Dawar were also declared proclaimed offenders (PO) in the case, after their continued non-appearance before the court in connection with a case related to treason and provoking the masses against the state through their hate speeches. It is advisable to negotiate with PTM and accept them as a democratic entity. Alienation causes resentment culminating into disloyalty.
Protest demonstration outside Peshawar Press Club
The activists of Waziristan Students Society (WSS) led by Attaullah, Sadaqat Ali, Rab Nawaz Khattak and others staged a protest demonstration against the curfew and internal clashes over land disputes in South Waziristan Tribal district, outside the Press Club in Peshawar. The speakers urged the government to withdraw curfew and restore peace in the area by finding out a solution to the crisis. The representatives of Pakhtoon Students Federation (PkSF) also attended the demonstration. They warned to expand their protest movement if the government failed to accept their demands including lifting of the curfew (18th February).
Comments & Analysis: – Curfew was clamped in Adda/Wana on 15th February, following an attack on the security forces by the terrorists. However, it was lifted on the request of the elders of a jirga of Ahmadzai tribes of South Waziristan. Curfew was clamped because the target killings of civilians and inter-tribe feuds are on the rise in tribal Districts particularly in North and South Waziristan. However, such administrative actions not only hamper the free movement of people but also adversely affect trade activities by compelling to close hundreds of shops, filling stations and restaurants in the area. It gives excuse to the Pakhtoon nationalist activists to exploit the situation and criticize the government. The Government should ensure maximum care before taking any administrative action harmful to the economic interests of the people of the area.
CRIME/LAW & ORDER- At a Glance
Crime Details 19/02/2021 to 25/02/2021
|Murders||(Taxila-7, Lahore-1, Bahawalpur-3, Narowal-2, Kasur-4, Dera Ghazi Khan-8, Toba Tek Singh-1, Okara-1, Sialkot-4, Raaalpindi-1, Taxila-2, Sheikhupura-3, Khanqah dogran-3, Mughalpurah-1, Choong-1, Nishtar Town-1, Manga Mandi-2) = 45||(Lakki Marwat-3, Kohat-1, South Waziristan-5, Mardan-3, Lakki Marwat-2, Peshawar-3, Mardan-1, Charsadda-1, Jamrud-1, Karachi-1, Mirali-4, Peshawar-5, Dera Ismail Khan-1, Swabi-2) = 33||(Karachi-1, Karachi-1, Sukkur-1, Vehari-2, Karachi-4, Sukkur-2, Larkana-1) = 13||(Quetta-5, Khuzdar-3, Dera Murad Jamali-2) = 10||(Islamabad-2) = 02|
|Gang rape||—||(Dadu-1) = 01||(Sukkur-1) = 01||—||—|
|Robberies/ Dacoits||Manga Mandi-1, kahna-1, Ravi Road-1, Mughalpurah-1, Shumali Chaoni-1, Defence-1, Nasirabad-1, Johar Town-1, Wahdat Colony-1, Nishtar Colony-1, Ravi Road-1, Gawalmandi-1, Chakwal-1, Lahore-1) = 14||—||—||—||—|
|Kidnapping||(Muzaffargarh-1) = 01||––||(Shikarpur-5) = 05||—|
|Police encounter||(Gujar Khan-2) = 02||—||—|
|Injured||(Taxila-17, Lahore-4, Gujrat-5, Bahawalpur-6, Taxila-4, Sheikhupura-1, Nawab Town-1, Lahore-1, Rawalpindi-1, Lahore-1, Bahawalpur-1) = 50||(Haripur-2, South Waziristan-1, Bajaur-1, Mardan-7, Mirali-1) = 12||(Vehari-18) = 18||(Khuzdar-2, Dera Murad Jamali-2) = 02||—|
Source: Media & National dailies
WITH MR. MUSTAFA HAIDER,
Executive Director Pak-China Institute Islamabad
TSB: Do you think CPEC is progressing on the right pace and China is satisfied with it?
MH: In 2021, the biggest project of CPEC so far will be done and which is the ML-I (Main Line-I) USD 6.8 billion and will start this year; so is the agricultural cooperation under CPEC as well as the Industrial cooperation under CPEC. So, I think that CPEC is certainly progressing well. Despite COVID-19, it has managed to move forward at a steady pace and even when it is a small project some ups and downs delays it. Pakistan does not have any experience to handle such a big project worth USD 62 billion. So, there would inevitably be some slags, delays and bureaucratic issues but from the overall strategic level, I think it is going well and in the right direction and there is political ownership from both sides.
TSB: What are the threats to CPEC from the external forces? Do you think Pakistan has made adequate arrangements to ward off these threats?
MH: There are threats to CPEC, particularly from India which has publicly opposed the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and has dedicated a cell within its intelligence agency RAW to subvert its progress by targeting the projects and Chinese personals. However, I think that the Pakistan Military and Pakistan security apparatus has taken adequate security measures and you can see that the attack on Karachi stock Exchange which happened last year was adequately thwarted. Similarly, other terrorism attempts have been preempted. There is a whole special security division that is dedicated to the security of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). So, I think that we have successfully preserved and protected the CPEC projects so far.
TSB: What is the present status of Gwadar port and what is its future?
MH: Gwadar Port is progressing well. There is a free zone that has been created by China Oversees Ports Holding Company (COPHC) which has leased Gwadar port. The port has also become operational and shipments are coming. Even though they’re not as regular as other ports but the work has started. It has been operationalized for commerce and more importantly, multiple projects are happening in Gwadar to enable it and to become the regional hub of connectivity There is also an energy project of 300 MWs. The biggest airport in Pakistan has been built there by the grant of the Chinese government. There are vocational training institute and a hospital which have been established through a grant. Moreover, the fisheries sector has also been enhanced where fishermen are getting training and equipment to enhance their abilities to not only do subsistence farming and small skills commercial operations but also to establish small and medium enterprises in future like fishermen in Shenzhen did 40 years ago. So, Gwadar is slowly and steadily moving in the right direction.
TSB: When will Gwadar port start working at its full potential?
MH: In my opinion, Gwadar’s full potential should be actualized in 2 to 3 years since port development is a very thorough process.
TSB: How can we connect to Central Asian Republics (CARs) through CPEC?
MH: Regarding the integration of Central Asia Republics in CPEC, they are the natural partners because the gateway for China into CPEC is Xinjiang and that is how the KKH, the friendship Highway, connects Pakistan and China and Xinjiang borders with Pakistan, Kirghizstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. So, all these STANS are connected via Xinjiang and Xinjiang is the gateway to CPEC so the Central Asian Republics are natural partners for Pakistan. Since Kazakhstan is also very central to the BRI, they can bring natural synergy in terms of pipelines, railways, and commerce. Just like Gwadar is providing the south-west province of Xinjiang the gateway to unlocked potential through Gwadar, the Central Asian Republics can be given gateway through Gwadar as well for commerce and they can use that port.
TSB: How can Iran and Turkey be joined to this project?
MH: Turkey and Iran are natural partners as well because Turkey and Iran both are the part of old Silk Route, and Iran is very important to BRI as the Chinese and Irani Governments have signed 25 years-long agreement on importing oil from Iran and return, investing in Iran in energy and infrastructure potential. So, in the future, Iran and Turkey can certainly be prospective partners as well as Afghanistan through the Wakhan Corridor.
TSB: What is the future of Special Economic Zones along the CPEC?
MH: As for the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are concerned, there are three top SEZs under CPEC; Rashkai, M2 Industrial zone Faisalabad and Dhabeji, and I think they are moving forward, and are progressing well. However, I think more needs to be done. Pakistan does not have enough expertise in developing SEZs because we don’t have any successful case study or experience to tackle SEZs. So, it is very important to train the trainers and to ensure the transfer of skills and understanding from China to the people working in SEZs in Pakistan so that we don’t mess it up. Because when we talk about SEZs, they are not a short success. In China when they tried SEZs, some of them took off and some of them didn’t. For example, in Henan, there was an experiment of SEZ which didn’t take off, whereas, in Shenzhen and Suzhou they did it and it was successful. So, I think it is a very delicate matter which needs to be handled with foresight and skill.
The Indian security forces during their anti-militancy operations arrested several Kashmiri youths on fake charges including Mohinder Singh and Mandeep Singh Chairman Jammu and Kashmir United Kisan Front (22nd February). MS Mehbooba Mufti and Farooq Abdullah ex-CMs respectively of IIOJK, through separate statements, advocated for dialogue between India and Pakistan to end terrorism and start normalization of the relations (21st February). Indian security forces killed two Kashmiri freedom fighters in Shalgul Forest, Srigufwara area of Anantnag District (24th February).
Comments & Analysis: – The situation at LoC remained calm during the period under review. The forces of India and Pakistan, however, remained deployed on the border.
The 10th round of Senior military commanders level talks of China and India was held in Ladakh along LAC to discuss disengagement of the troops on other locations of the border (20th February).
Comments & Analysis: – The Indian Government is having second thoughts on the disengagement agreement which is being criticized by many Indian security analysts as a pro-China arrangement.
Kabul Hosts Intel Conference for Regional Nations
A Regional Counter-terrorism Conference was reportedly held under the aegis of the National Directorate of Security, Afghanistan (NDS) headed by Ahmed Zia Siraj at Kabul. It was claimed to have been participated by the intelligence representatives from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, and USA except Iran (18th February).
During the meeting, the regional countries reportedly understood the concerns over the “increase of terrorist activities vis a vis its effects on Afghanistan as well as and peace and stability in the region. The NDS stated that regional countries have agreed on three key points: there was a consensus on the definition of terrorism, common threats were identified, and action will be taken to eliminate them and accelerate the process of information exchange between intelligence services.”
Comments & Analysis: – It is learnt that the main objective behind arranging the conference of the representees of the regional countries by the Afghan government was to muster the support of these countries on the Afghan government’s stand and actions against terrorism and other security related issues. The Afghan government and its security establishment is continuously making attempt to see Taliban behind every act of terrorism directly or indirectly with its alleged nexus with Al-Qaida, IS/ISKP and accuse Pakistan for their harboring without any prove.
In past despite understanding with the Afghan government for intelligence sharing, it never provided any information to Pakistan about TTP, ISKP and Baloch terrorists operations from Afghan territory on one pretext or the other.
The Indian RAW and DA seem behind organizing the conference to gain time and sympathies for the Afghan government to divert the attention more on security related issues instead of seeking any possible output from peace talks at Doha following the Boden administration announcement to review the US-Taliban peace accord and NTO intention for continued stationing it forces beyond May this year.
AFGHAN PEACE PROCESS
Peace talks between the Taliban and Afghan Government reportedly resumed in Qatar’s Capital Doha after interval of several days. However, any decision agreed upon by the two sides has not been reached yet, accept the wish to continue the talks for setting the agenda (22nd February).
Comments & Analysis: – President Ashraf Ghani and the security establishment of Afghanistan keep blaming Taliban for increasing violence in Afghanistan whereas Taliban accuse the Afghan Government for the same. The priority of the Afghan Government, Western powers and NATO is reduction in violence leading to ceasefire between the two sides in Afghanistan. Meanwhile the Taliban have reportedly directed their members to avoid to maintain links, if any, with foreign militants to repel the impression given by the Afghan Government and Western media for having links with al-Qaeda and other militants groups.
Coronavirus Crisis Update
The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Pakistan was registered to be 18,389 from 19th February to 26th February, 2021 (Friday) after new infections were confirmed in the country.
The Province-wise breakup of the total 2,723 active cases during this period is as follows:
• Sindh: 941
• Punjab: 1330
• Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: 20
• Balochistan: 10
• Islamabad Capital Territory: 259
• Gilgit-Baltistan: 16
• AJK: 147
Comments & Analysis: – During the last week the total number of reported covid patients across the country was 804. However during the week under review it is slightly high. The increase in more in the Punjab. The number of covid patients registered during the last week in Punjab was 227. This week it is 1330. However, the government has decided to relax the restrictions from mid-March. Islamabad administration has issued notification in this regard to open cinemas, shrines, indoor wedding ceremonies in its jurisdiction from 15th March 2021.
Terrorism: TTP and its affiliates have increased their terrorist activities in tribal areas and some parts of KPK.. Low-intensity insurgency is continuing in ex-tribal areas and Balochistan.
Threat Level: High – The threat level is high due to national, international and regional security environment. The intelligence agencies must keep the guards up and take pro-active pre-emptive measures.
Level of Sectarianism & Religious Extremism: On the rise. There is an urgent need to bridle the situation through all means.
Border Situation: Tense – However there was lull in the exchange of fire at LOC during the last three weeks. The Western border (Pak-Afghan), remained calm.
Health Security: A new surge of Coronavirus pandemic seems to be weakening in Pakistan. People are anxiously waiting for vaccine and summers that could bring some solace to the people.
Social Unrest: Rising; due to exorbitant price hike and political unrest. The constant rise in electricity, petrol tariffs and inflation has impacted all segments of the society. Especially the salaried class and poor people are the worst sufferers.
Note: The Security Brief is based on open source media reports